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Mastering SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12: From Installation to Administration



The Definitive Guide to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12




If you are looking for a reliable, scalable, and secure operating system for your enterprise-class workloads, you might want to consider SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12. In this article, we will give you a comprehensive overview of what SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 is, why you should choose it, and how you can install, configure, customize, troubleshoot, and maintain it.




The Definitive Guide to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 mobi download book



What is SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12?




SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 is a full-featured operating system that allows you to run a variety of workloads on physical, virtual, or cloud environments. It is based on the multimodal platform of SUSE Linux Enterprise 15, which consists of several products and extensions that cater to different needs and scenarios. Some of these products and extensions are:



  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications 15 SP4: A tailored solution for running SAP applications on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.



  • SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension 15 SP4: An add-on that provides clustering and failover capabilities for mission-critical systems.



  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 15 SP4: A user-friendly desktop operating system that integrates well with Windows environments.



  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Workstation Extension 15 SP4: An add-on that transforms SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop into a powerful workstation for developers and engineers.



  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Live Patching 15 SP4: An add-on that allows you to apply kernel patches without rebooting or disrupting your system.



  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Real Time 15 SP4: An add-on that provides real-time computing capabilities for time-sensitive applications.



  • SUSE Linux Enterprise High Performance Computing 15 SP4: An add-on that optimizes SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for high-performance computing workloads.



SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 is the only enterprise Linux recommended by Microsoft and SAP, as it is optimized to deliver high-performance mission-critical services, as well as edge of network, and web infrastructure workloads. It is also designed for interoperability, as it integrates into classical Unix as well as Windows environments, supports open standard interfaces for systems management, and has been certified for IPv6 compatibility.


Why choose SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12?




There are many reasons why you might want to choose SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 over other operating systems. Here are some of the key features and benefits that make it stand out:


Modular and flexible architecture




SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 has a modular and flexible architecture that allows you to customize your system according to your needs. You can select which product to install and activate additional modules to add functionality. You can also choose from different service packs (SP) that provide different levels of stability, security, and innovation. For example, SP4 is the latest and most advanced service pack, while SP3 is more conservative and stable.


Enhanced performance and scalability




SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 delivers enhanced performance and scalability for your workloads, thanks to its optimized kernel, support for multiple processor architectures, and advanced tuning options. You can run SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 on AMD64/Intel 64, Arm, Power, and Z Systems architectures, and benefit from features such as NUMA balancing, transparent huge pages, CPU pinning, and cgroups. You can also scale your system up to 4096 logical CPUs and 64 TiB of RAM.


Improved security and reliability




SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 provides improved security and reliability for your system, thanks to its hardened code base, comprehensive security features, and robust update mechanism. You can protect your system from external and internal threats with features such as AppArmor, SELinux, firewalld, auditd, TPM 2.0, FIPS 140-2 certification, and secure boot. You can also keep your system up to date with patches and fixes from SUSE Customer Center or a local Repository Mirroring Tool server.


Simplified management and administration




SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 simplifies the management and administration of your system, thanks to its intuitive tools, automation capabilities, and documentation resources. You can manage your system with tools such as YaST, Zypper, Snapper, Wicked, systemd, and SUSE Manager. You can also automate tasks with scripts, Ansible playbooks, Salt states, or Puppet manifests. You can also access comprehensive documentation at http://www.suse.com/documentation/sles-12/.


Optimized for cloud and virtualization




SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 is optimized for cloud and virtualization scenarios, thanks to its support for leading hypervisors and cloud platforms. You can run SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 as a high-performing guest on VMware, Hyper-V, Xen, KVM, or z/VM hypervisors. You can also run SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 on public cloud platforms such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform (GCP), or Alibaba Cloud. You can also benefit from an unlimited number of virtual machines per physical system with a single subscription.


How to Install and Upgrade SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12




If you are interested in installing or upgrading to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12, you need to consider some requirements and options before you proceed. Here are some of the main steps you need to follow:


Installation requirements and options




To install SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 on your system, you need to meet some minimum requirements. These are:



  • Local installation: 1024 MiB RAM, 512 MiB Swap recommended



  • 2 GiB available disk space (more recommended, 8.5 GiB for all patterns)



  • 32 GiB for snapshot/rollback of the OS



  • Network interface



You also need to choose which installation media to use. There are two types of media available:



  • A media for online installation ("SLE-15-SP4-Online-*-GM-Media1.iso") which can be used if you have a connection to either SCC, RMT or SMT. This media only contains the installer. During the installation you will have the option to select which product to install and to add functionality by activating additional modules.



  • A media for offline installation ("SLE-15-SP4-Full-*-GM-Media1.iso"). This media contains all packages but is rather big. You can use this media if you want to perform an installation without network access.



You can download the installation media from https://www.suse.com/download/sles/.


Upgrade paths and procedures




If you are already running a previous version of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server on your system, you might want to upgrade to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12. There are different upgrade paths and procedures depending on your current version and service pack level. Here are some of the main scenarios:



  • If you are running SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP4 or later on AMD64/Intel64 or System z architectures, you can upgrade directly to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP4 using the online installation media or the offline installation media.



  • If you are running SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP4 or later on Power architecture (ppc64le), you can upgrade directly to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP4 using the offline installation media only.

How to Configure and Customize SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12




After you have installed or upgraded to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12, you might want to configure and customize your system according to your preferences and requirements. Here are some of the main aspects you need to consider:


Basic system settings




You can use YaST, the central tool for system administration, to adjust basic system settings such as hostname, timezone, language, keyboard layout, users and groups, network services, and boot options. You can launch YaST from the command line with yast or yast2, or from the graphical interface with Applications > System > YaST. You can also access YaST modules individually with yast module_name, such as yast lan for network configuration.


Network configuration




You can use YaST or Wicked, the network management framework, to configure your network interfaces, routing, DNS, firewall, proxy, and other network settings. You can use Wicked from the command line with wicked or wickedd, or from the graphical interface with Applications > System > Network Settings. You can also use NetworkManager, an alternative network management tool, if you prefer a more dynamic and user-friendly approach. You can use NetworkManager from the command line with nmcli or nmtui, or from the graphical interface with Applications > System > Network Connections.


Software management




You can use YaST or Zypper, the package manager, to install, update, remove, or search for software packages on your system. You can also use them to manage software repositories and patterns. You can use Zypper from the command line with zypper, or from the graphical interface with Applications > System > Software Management. You can also use Snapper, a tool for managing snapshots of your system, to undo changes made by software updates or installations. You can use Snapper from the command line with snapper, or from the graphical interface with Applications > System > Snapshots.


System services and daemons




You can use systemd, the init system and service manager, to control and monitor system services and daemons on your system. You can use systemd from the command line with systemctl, systemd-analyze, journalctl, or other systemd commands. You can also use YaST to manage some of the system services and daemons, such as cron, postfix, sshd, ntpd, etc. You can access these services from YaST under System > Services Manager.


How to Troubleshoot and Maintain SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12




If you encounter any problems or issues with your SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 system, you might need to troubleshoot and maintain it to ensure its optimal performance and functionality. Here are some of the main aspects you need to consider:


Common problems and solutions




You can find common problems and solutions for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 in the official documentation at https://documentation.suse.com/sles/12-SP4/html/SLES-all/cha-troubleshooting.html. You can also consult the SUSE Support Knowledgebase at https://www.suse.com/support/kb/, where you can search for articles by keywords, categories, products, or symptoms. You can also contact SUSE Technical Support at https://www.suse.com/support/, where you can open a service request, chat with an expert, or call a hotline.


System monitoring and logging




You can use various tools and commands to monitor and log your system's status, activity, performance, and events. Some of these tools and commands are:



  • top, htop, sar, iostat, vmstat, free, df, du, etc.: These commands can show you information about your system's CPU, memory, disk, network, and other resources.



  • ps, pgrep, pkill, kill, killall, etc.: These commands can show you information about your system's processes and allow you to manage them.



  • lsof, fuser, netstat, ss, tcpdump, wireshark, etc.: These commands can show you information about your system's open files, sockets, and network connections.



  • dmesg, journalctl, /var/log/messages, /var/log/boot.log, etc.: These commands and files can show you information about your system's kernel messages, systemd journal, and other log files.



  • Gnome System Monitor, KDE System Monitor, KSysGuard, etc.: These graphical tools can show you information about your system's resources, processes, and network in a user-friendly way.



Backup and recovery




You can use various tools and methods to backup and recover your system's data and configuration in case of a disaster or a human error. Some of these tools and methods are:



  • tar, cpio, rsync, dd, etc.: These commands can help you create, copy, synchronize, or restore files and directories on your system.



  • btrfs, LVM, RAID, etc.: These tools can help you create, manage, or restore snapshots, logical volumes, or redundant arrays of your system's partitions or disks.



  • Snapper: This tool can help you create, manage, or restore snapshots of your system's state using btrfs or LVM.



  • Bacula, Bareos, Amanda, etc.: These tools can help you create, manage, or restore backups of your system's data using a network-based backup server.



  • Rescue System: This is a special boot option that allows you to access and repair your system in case of a boot failure or a corrupted file system.



  • Recovery DVD: This is a special DVD that allows you to reinstall or repair your system in case of a severe damage or a lost installation media.

Conclusion




In this article, we have given you a definitive guide to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12, one of the most reliable, scalable, and secure operating systems for your enterprise-class workloads. We have covered what SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 is, why you should choose it, and how you can install, configure, customize, troubleshoot, and maintain it. We hope you have found this article useful and informative.


If you want to learn more about SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12, you can visit the official website at https://www.suse.com/products/server/, where you can find more details, features, use cases, and testimonials. You can also access the official documentation at https://documentation.suse.com/sles/12-SP4/html/SLES-all/, where you can find comprehensive guides, manuals, and best practices for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12.


If you are ready to try SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 for yourself, you can download a free evaluation copy from https://www.suse.com/download/sles/, where you can choose from different service packs and architectures. You can also request a free trial of SUSE Manager, a powerful tool for managing your SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems, from https://www.suse.com/products/suse-manager/.


Thank you for reading this article. We hope you have enjoyed it and learned something new. If you have any questions or feedback, please feel free to contact us. We would love to hear from you.


FAQs




Here are some frequently asked questions about SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12:



What is the difference between SUSE Linux Enterprise Server and openSUSE?


  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server is a commercial operating system that is designed for enterprise-class workloads and supported by SUSE. openSUSE is a community-driven operating system that is designed for developers and enthusiasts and supported by the openSUSE Project. Both operating systems share a common code base and some features, but they have different release cycles, stability levels, and support options.



What are the system requirements for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12?


  • The minimum system requirements for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 are: 1024 MiB RAM, 512 MiB Swap recommended; 2 GiB available disk space (more recommended, 8.5 GiB for all patterns); 32 GiB for snapshot/rollback of the OS; network interface. The recommended system requirements depend on your specific use case and workload.



How can I upgrade from SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12?


  • You cannot upgrade directly from SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12. You need to upgrade first to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP4 using the online or offline installation media. Then you can upgrade to SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP4 using the offline installation media only.



How can I install software packages on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12?


  • You can install software packages on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 using YaST or Zypper. You can also activate additional modules to add functionality to your system. You need to have a valid subscription and a connection to either SCC, RMT or SMT to access the software repositories.



How can I backup and restore my SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 system?


  • You can backup and restore your SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 system using various tools and methods such as tar, cpio, rsync, dd, btrfs, LVM, RAID, Snapper, Bacula, Bareos, Amanda, Rescue System, or Recovery DVD. You need to choose the appropriate tool and method depending on your backup strategy and recovery scenario.



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