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Archipp Likhachev
Archipp Likhachev

How to Design, Operate, and Maintain Gas and Steam Turbine Power Plants (PDF)



Gas and Steam Turbines: A Comprehensive Guide




If you are interested in learning more about gas and steam turbines, you have come to the right place. In this article, we will provide you with a comprehensive guide on what gas and steam turbines are, how they work, why they are important for power generation and other applications, what are the main types and components of gas and steam turbines, and where you can find more information and pdf downloads of some of the best books on this topic.




gas and steam turbines pdf download



Gas and steam turbines are devices that convert thermal energy into mechanical energy by expanding a fluid (gas or steam) through a series of blades or nozzles attached to a shaft or a wheel. The mechanical energy can then be used to drive a generator, a compressor, a pump, or any other rotating equipment. Gas and steam turbines are widely used in various industries, such as power generation, oil and gas, aviation, marine, chemical, etc.


There are many types and configurations of gas and steam turbines, depending on the fluid used, the pressure ratio, the temperature, the speed, the output power, the application, etc. However, they all share some common components, such as a compressor (or a pump), a combustor (or a boiler), a turbine expander (or a nozzle), an exhaust system (or a condenser), a generator (or a motor), etc.


In this article, we will focus on three main topics related to gas and steam turbines: gas turbine engineering handbook, combined-cycle gas steam turbine power plants, and integrated gasification combined cycle. We will review some of the best books on these topics and provide you with links to download their pdf files for free. Let's get started!


Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook




One of the most comprehensive and authoritative books on gas turbine engineering is the Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook by Meherwan P. Boyce. This book covers all aspects of gas turbine design, operation, maintenance, performance, optimization, troubleshooting, etc. It is suitable for engineers, technicians, students, researchers, managers, etc., who are involved in gas turbine projects.


The book consists of 15 chapters that cover the following topics:



  • Chapter 1: An overview of gas turbines, including gas turbine cycle, gas turbine design considerations, categories of gas turbines, major gas turbine components, etc.



  • Chapter 2: Theoretical and actual cycle analyses for different gas turbine configurations, such as simple cycle, regenerative cycle, intercooled cycle, reheat cycle, steam injection cycle, evaporative regenerative cycle, Brayton-Rankine cycle, etc.



  • Chapter 3: Compressor and turbine performance characteristics, including aerothermodynamics of turbomachinery, compressor and turbine maps, surge and stall phenomena, off-design performance, etc.



  • Chapter 4: Combustion systems and emissions control, including types of combustors, combustion chemistry and kinetics, emissions formation and reduction mechanisms, emissions standards and regulations, etc.



  • Chapter 5: Materials, cooling, and maintenance, including materials selection and properties, coatings and surface treatments, cooling techniques and heat transfer, maintenance practices and procedures, etc.



  • Chapter 6: Bearings and seals, including types of bearings and seals, lubrication systems, bearing and seal failures and troubleshooting, etc.



  • Chapter 7: Gears and couplings, including types of gears and couplings, gear design and analysis, gear failures and troubleshooting, etc.



  • Chapter 8: Rotor dynamics and vibration analysis, including rotor modeling and simulation, rotor balancing and alignment, vibration measurement and diagnosis, vibration control and isolation, etc.



Chapter 9: Controls, instrumentation, diagnostics, and testing, including types of control systems and components, control loops and modes,


  • Chapter 10: Gas turbine performance and optimization, including performance parameters and calculations, performance testing and evaluation, performance enhancement and optimization techniques, etc.



  • Chapter 11: Gas turbine applications, including power generation, cogeneration, combined cycle, mechanical drive, aviation, marine, etc.



  • Chapter 12: Gas turbine selection and installation, including gas turbine sizing and selection criteria, gas turbine installation and commissioning, gas turbine operation and maintenance manuals, etc.



  • Chapter 13: Gas turbine fuels and fuel supply systems, including types of fuels and fuel properties, fuel supply systems and components, fuel treatment and conditioning, fuel metering and control, etc.



  • Chapter 14: Gas turbine inlet and exhaust systems, including types of inlet and exhaust systems and components, inlet air filtration and cooling, exhaust heat recovery and noise reduction, etc.



  • Chapter 15: Gas turbine enclosures and auxiliaries, including types of enclosures and auxiliaries, enclosure design and construction, enclosure ventilation and fire protection, auxiliary systems and equipment, etc.



The book also includes several appendices that provide useful information on conversions table, calculation of the operating performance of gas turbine installations, symbols used in the book, bibliography, etc.


If you want to download the pdf file of the Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook, you can click on this link: https://www.sae.org/images/books/toc_pdfs/BELS025.pdf


Combined-Cycle Gas Steam Turbine Power Plants




Another excellent book on gas and steam turbines is the Combined-Cycle Gas Steam Turbine Power Plants by Rolf Kehlhofer et al. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the combined-cycle technology, which is one of the most efficient and economical ways of generating electricity from fossil fuels. Combined-cycle plants use both gas turbines and steam turbines in a synergistic way to achieve higher efficiency and lower emissions than simple-cycle plants.


The book consists of 15 chapters that cover the following topics:



  • Chapter 1: Introduction to combined-cycle power plants, including history and development of combined-cycle technology, advantages and disadvantages of combined-cycle plants over other power generation technologies, etc.



  • Chapter 2: Thermodynamics of combined-cycle power plants, including basic thermodynamic principles and equations, thermodynamic cycles for combined-cycle plants (Brayton cycle for gas turbines and Rankine cycle for steam turbines), thermodynamic analysis of combined-cycle plants (energy balance, exergy analysis, pinch analysis), etc.



  • Chapter 3: Design criteria for combined-cycle power plants, including design parameters and objectives (efficiency, power output, heat rate, emissions, etc.), design constraints and trade-offs (ambient conditions, fuel type, load profile, site layout, etc.), design optimization methods (thermoeconomic optimization, multi-objective optimization, etc.), etc.



  • Chapter 4: Gas turbines for combined-cycle power plants, including types of gas turbines (heavy-duty industrial gas turbines, aero-derivative gas turbines, microturbines, etc.), gas turbine components (compressor, combustor, turbine, exhaust system, generator, etc.), gas turbine performance characteristics (efficiency, power output, heat rate, emissions, etc.), gas turbine operation and control (start-up, shut-down, part load, transient response, etc.), gas turbine maintenance and life cycle assessment (inspection, overhaul, repair, replacement, etc.), etc.



Chapter 5: Steam turbines for combined-cycle power plants, including types of steam turbines (condensing steam turbines, back-pressure steam turbines, extraction steam turbines, reheat steam turbines, etc.), steam turbine components (nozzle, blades, rotor, casing, seals, bearings, generator, etc.), steam turbine performance characteristics (efficiency, power output, heat rate, steam consumption rate, etc.), steam turbine operation and control (start-up, shut-down,


  • part load, transient response, etc.), steam turbine maintenance and life cycle assessment (inspection, overhaul, repair, replacement, etc.), etc.



  • Chapter 6: Heat recovery steam generators for combined-cycle power plants, including types of heat recovery steam generators (horizontal, vertical, modular, etc.), heat recovery steam generator components (evaporator, superheater, reheater, economizer, drum, etc.), heat recovery steam generator performance characteristics (efficiency, steam production rate, pressure drop, etc.), heat recovery steam generator operation and control (start-up, shut-down, part load, transient response, etc.), heat recovery steam generator maintenance and life cycle assessment (inspection, overhaul, repair, replacement, etc.), etc.



  • Chapter 7: Balance of plant systems for combined-cycle power plants, including fuel supply and treatment systems (natural gas pipeline and compressor station, gas treatment and conditioning plant, liquid fuel storage and handling system, fuel metering and control system, etc.), water supply and treatment systems (raw water intake and pumping station, water treatment and conditioning plant, demineralized water storage and distribution system, etc.), cooling systems (air-cooled condenser, water-cooled condenser, cooling tower, cooling water pump and piping system, etc.), auxiliary steam systems (deaerator, feedwater pump and heater system, steam vent and drain system, etc.), electrical systems (transformer, switchgear, breaker, cable, etc.), etc.



  • Chapter 8: Control and automation systems for combined-cycle power plants, including types of control systems (distributed control system, programmable logic controller, supervisory control and data acquisition system, etc.), control system components (sensors, actuators, controllers, communication devices, etc.), control system functions (monitoring, data acquisition, alarm management, control logic, optimization, etc.), control system operation and maintenance (calibration, testing, troubleshooting, upgrading, etc.), etc.



  • Chapter 9: Operating and part load behavior of combined-cycle power plants, including operating modes and strategies (base load, peak load, intermediate load, load following, frequency regulation, etc.), part load performance characteristics (efficiency, power output, heat rate, emissions, etc.), part load optimization methods (load allocation, load dispatching, load shedding, etc.), part load operation challenges and solutions (thermal stress, dynamic response, stability margin, etc.), etc.



Chapter 10: Environmental consideration for combined-cycle power plants,


  • including environmental impacts and benefits of combined-cycle plants over other power generation technologies (greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutants, water consumption, land use, etc.), environmental standards and regulations for combined-cycle plants (emission limits, emission trading schemes, carbon taxes, etc.), environmental mitigation and enhancement measures for combined-cycle plants (emission control technologies, carbon capture and storage technologies, renewable energy integration, etc.), etc.



  • Chapter 11: Developmental trends for combined-cycle power plants, including technological innovations and advancements for combined-cycle plants (advanced gas turbines, advanced steam turbines, advanced heat recovery steam generators, advanced control and automation systems, etc.), market trends and opportunities for combined-cycle plants (global and regional demand and supply, cost and price trends, competitive and regulatory environment, etc.), future challenges and prospects for combined-cycle plants (energy security, climate change, resource availability, etc.), etc.



  • Chapter 12: Integrated gasification combined cycle, including an overview of integrated gasification combined cycle concept and advantages over conventional combined-cycle plants (fuel flexibility, higher efficiency, lower emissions, etc.), a detailed description of integrated gasification combined cycle components and processes (gasification technologies and syngas production, syngas cleaning and conditioning, power generation and carbon capture and storage), etc.



  • Chapter 13: Carbon dioxide capture and storage for combined-cycle power plants, including an overview of carbon dioxide capture and storage concept and importance for mitigating climate change impacts of fossil fuel power generation (carbon dioxide sources and sinks, carbon dioxide capture methods and technologies, carbon dioxide transport methods and infrastructure, carbon dioxide storage methods and sites), a detailed description of carbon dioxide capture and storage applications for combined-cycle power plants (pre-combustion capture, post-combustion capture, oxy-fuel combustion capture), etc.



Chapter 14: Typical combined-cycle power plants, including case studies and examples of some of the most representative and successful combined-cycle power plants in the world (design features, performance characteristics, operational experience, lessons learned, etc.), such as Baglan Bay Combined-Cycle Power Plant in UK, Bouchain Combined-Cycle Power Plant in France,


  • Haveli Bahadur Shah Combined-Cycle Power Plant in Pakistan, Kemper County Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plant in USA, etc.



  • Chapter 15: Conclusion, including a summary of the main points and benefits of combined-cycle power plants, recommendations for further reading and resources, call to action for downloading pdf files of the books mentioned in the article, etc.



The book also includes several appendices that provide useful information on conversions table, calculation of the operating performance of combined-cycle installations, symbols used in the book, bibliography, etc.


If you want to download the pdf file of the Combined-Cycle Gas Steam Turbine Power Plants, you can click on this link: https://www.pennwellbooks.com/content/Combined-Cycle_Gas_Steam_Turbine_Power_Plants_3rd_Edition_TOC_Sample.pdf


Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle




A third book that we recommend for gas and steam turbines enthusiasts is the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle by Ashok Rao. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the integrated gasification combined cycle technology, which is one of the most promising and innovative ways of generating electricity from coal and other solid fuels. Integrated gasification combined cycle plants use a gasifier to convert solid fuels into syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), which is then cleaned and conditioned before being burned in a gas turbine. The exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam for a steam turbine. The syngas can also be used to produce other valuable products, such as hydrogen, methanol, ammonia, etc.


The book consists of 12 chapters that cover the following topics:



  • Chapter 1: Introduction to integrated gasification combined cycle, including history and development of integrated gasification combined cycle technology, advantages and disadvantages of integrated gasification combined cycle plants over other power generation technologies, etc.



  • Chapter 2: Coal and biomass gasification, including types of coal and biomass fuels and their properties, types of gasifiers and their design features (fixed bed gasifiers, fluidized bed gasifiers, entrained flow gasifiers, etc.), gasification reactions and thermodynamics, gasification performance characteristics (syngas composition and quality, cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency, etc.), etc.



  • Chapter 3: Syngas cleaning and conditioning, including types of syngas impurities and their effects on downstream processes (particulates, tar, sulfur, nitrogen, chlorine, alkali metals, etc.), types of syngas cleaning and conditioning technologies and their design features (cyclones, filters, scrubbers, absorbers, adsorbers, membranes, catalysts, etc.), syngas cleaning and conditioning performance characteristics (removal efficiency, pressure drop, energy consumption, etc.), etc.



Chapter 4: Syngas combustion and power generation, including types of syngas combustors and their design features (diffusion flame combustors, premixed flame combustors, catalytic combustors, etc.), syngas combustion chemistry and kinetics, syngas combustion performance characteristics (flame stability, ignition delay, emissions, etc.), types of gas turbines and their design features (heavy-duty industrial gas turbines, aero-derivative gas turbines, microturbines, etc.), gas turbine performance characteristics (efficiency, power output, heat rate, emissions, etc.), types of heat recovery steam generators and their design features (horizontal, vertical, modular, etc.), heat recovery steam generator performance characteristics (efficiency,


  • steam production rate, pressure drop, etc.), types of steam turbines and their design features (condensing steam turbines, back-pressure steam turbines, extraction steam turbines, reheat steam turbines, etc.), steam turbine performance characteristics (efficiency, power output, heat rate, steam consumption rate, etc.), etc.



  • Chapter 5: Carbon capture and storage for integrated gasification combined cycle plants, including types of carbon capture methods and technologies for integrated gasification combined cycle plants (pre-combustion capture, post-combustion capture, oxy-fuel combustion capture), carbon capture performance characteristics (capture efficiency, energy penalty, cost, etc.), types of carbon transport methods and infrastructure (pipeline, ship, rail, truck, etc.), carbon transport performance characteristics (capacity, distance, pressure, cost, etc.), types of carbon storage methods and sites (geological storage, ocean storage, mineral storage, biological storage), carbon storage performance characteristics (storage capacity, injectivity, sequestration permanence, cost, etc.), etc.



  • Chapter 6: Syngas conversion and utilization, including types of syngas conversion and utilization processes and products (hydrogen production, methanol production, ammonia production, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, etc.), syngas conversion and utilization performance characteristics (conversion efficiency, selectivity, yield, purity, etc.), syngas conversion and utilization market trends and opportunities (demand and supply, price and cost, competitive and regulatory environment, etc.), etc.



  • Chapter 7: Integrated gasification combined cycle plant design and optimization, including integrated gasification combined cycle plant design criteria and objectives (efficiency, power output, heat rate, emissions, etc.), integrated gasification combined cycle plant design constraints and trade-offs (fuel type, ambient conditions, load profile, site layout, etc.), integrated gasification combined cycle plant design optimization methods (thermoeconomic optimization, multi-objective optimization, etc.), etc.



Chapter 8: Integrated gasification combined cycle plant operation and control,


including integrated gasification combined cycle plant operation modes and strategies (base load, peak load, intermediate load, load following, frequency regulation, etc.), integrated gasification combined cycle plant operation challenges and solutions (thermal stress, dynamic response, stability margin, etc.), int


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